These are defined as the diseases which arise when the body’s Immune system’s response in a destructive manner against self tissue. Auto-Immune disorders are mainly the result of overactivity of the immune system, in which the Immune system attacks and damages the body's own healthy cells. Auto-Immune disorders mainly occur due to failure of “Immunological intolerance” (a process by which the Immune system recognizes and accepts self tissues).
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
Auto-Immune disorders are more common in women than men due the following factors, these are:
Genetic Variations - Genes like HLA gene (that results most of the Auto-Immune diseases), Gene like PTPN22 (that results Rheumatoid arthritis and Type-1 Diabetes), Gene like ATG5 (that results in systemic lupus erythematosus) etc.
Smoking - Cigarette smokers are more prone to develop Auto-Immune diseases.
Infections - Some infections like acute rheumatic fever followed by Streptococcal infection may lead to occurrence of Auto-Immune disorders.
Side Effects of Drug - Occasionally these may develop after the counter bad effects of some drugs (e.g. - anesthetic agent Halothane).
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
Auto-Immune disorders are of two main types, these are:
ORGAN – specific autoimmune disorders - following are the examples of organ-specific autoimmune disorders:
- Coeliac Disease
- Grave’s Disease
- Addison’s Disease
- Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
- Autoimmune Haemolytic Aanaemia
- Pernicious Anaemia
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Multiple Sclerosis
MULTI-SYSTEM AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS - Following are some types of multi- system autoimmune disorders:
- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
- Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
- Systemic Sclerosis
WHAT ARE THE COMMON TYPES OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - RA is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect the joints as well as a wide variety of body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart & blood vessels; it affects the lining of joints that eventually results in bone erosion & joint deformity. It causes Tender, warm & swollen joints, joint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings, and after inactivity, general fatigue, Fever and sometimes weight loss.
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS - Multiple sclerosis is an auto-immune disorder in which the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers & causes problem in communication between brain & rest of the body; Multiple sclerosis can cause permanent deterioration of the nerves; it is a potentially disabling disease of central nervous system which mainly affects the movement of the body.
PSORIASIS - Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory, hyper-proliferative autoimmune skin disorder which causes skin cells to multiply up to 10 times faster than normal. It is characterized by well-defined, erythematous scaly plaques, particularly affects the extensor surfaces & scalp or can grow anywhere in the body. It cannot pass from one person to another; the disease usually follows a remitting & relapsing course. In severe cases, psoriasis can cover large parts of the body.
SLE (SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS) - SLE is an auto-immune disorder in which the immune system attacks its own tissues especially the connective tissues resulting in inflammation & tissue damage in the affected organs; It usually affect the joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys & blood; The disease can be mild or life-threatening.
COELIAC DISEASE – It is a chronic digestive autoimmune disorder resulting from an immune reaction after eating Gluten (a specific protein found in Wheat, Barley, Rye and sometimes Oats.